How could build the pyramids?
The question of how and by whom the Egyptian pyramids were built, is still burning. The answer includes several theories that do not have precise scientific evidence. And today it remains a mystery how, without any lifting mechanisms, the Egyptians managed to move huge boulders to the construction site and then lift them to multi-meter height (so, the top of the highest pyramid is 147 meters above the ground). In this case, the most ancient Egyptian pyramid dates back to 2575 BC, the last - 1570 year.
"Water" hypothesis of building pyramids
A recent study confirmed the version that the most massive stone blocks of the Egyptians could move on the sand, pre-watered it with water. Physicists from the University of Amsterdam conducted an experiment: they decided to move a heavy load on a huge sleigh. Their path lay through the desert, the sand was constantly accumulating in a pile, making it difficult to move. But when the path in front of the sleigh was wetted with water, the sand stopped sticking.Friction between wagon runners and wet sand also decreased.
This technology is as simple as it is ingenious. Her "spied" the Danish scientists inside the Egyptian tomb, dating from 1900 BC. The image captured the scene of a large statue - more than a hundred men were pushing a sleigh, and one was pouring water over the sand in front of the runners.
The extended theory of water transportation of stone blocks was expressed by French engineer Michel Enquez - he suggested that the blocks were delivered to the construction site using a special hydraulic system - water canals were built, along which boats loaded with stone sailed to their destination.
Hypothesis of ancient Egyptian concrete
French and American researchers analyzed the stones that make up the pyramids of Cheops, Khafre and Mikerina. Soon they published a sensational news that stone monoliths were actually cast from artificial material, similar to concrete in properties. The man-made blocks were located in the upper rows of the pyramids between monoliths of natural origin. Scientists have even announced the composition of concrete: palm ash, sandstone crumbs and a special kind of soda obtained from the water of the Nile.In their opinion, the concrete was made at the construction site, and then in buckets it was lifted to the upper tiers of the pyramids and there it was poured into wooden forms. But other scientists call the theory of the ancient Egyptian "concrete" complete nonsense. They argue that the Egyptians used nummulite limestone - a rock that includes fossilized organisms. Therefore, there can be no talk of any concrete.
How the pyramids were built: alternative versions
Doubtful versions of the origin of the Egyptian pyramids are also being advanced. In particular, there is mentioned some more ancient super-developed civilization, which left this wonder of the world to the Egyptians "in inheritance". But professional Egyptologists say that the hypothesis of the notorious pracivilization is absurd. Recent geological studies confirm that the temporal boundaries of the pyramid structures remain the same - the third millennium BC.
Supporters of the UFO version, in turn, argue that aliens could build pyramids or, at a minimum, help the Egyptians in this difficult task. They reinforce their theory with the fact that even today these structures are surprising in their scale, intricate construction and incomprehensible purpose.
But, according to scientists, the pyramids were built by people, and more precisely by free congregations of ancient Egypt. Numerous graves of workers who worked at the construction site were found near the pyramids — slaves would not be allowed to be buried near the Pharaoh’s stone tomb. Also, according to the unfinished pyramidal complexes of the 16th century BC, at Zawiat el Ariana (two kilometers from Giza), experts understand what was the principle of the ramp system for lifting building blocks to the top.
The traditional version of the construction of the pyramids was also confirmed by the NOVA project, which was recently implemented by American and Japanese scientists. During it, the pyramid model was built using only ancient technologies and a limited number of workers in a short time.
But, despite the data of experiments, in our time, the Egyptian pyramids continue to keep a lot of unresolved mysteries and secrets, which no one can understand yet.
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