Physical properties of substances
The more time passes after graduation from a school or institute, the more it is forgotten what we were taught there. Today, few people remember what the physical properties of substances are.
Substances simple and complex
Substances consisting of atoms of one element and not amenable to further decomposition during a chemical reaction, are called simple. There are more than 400 kinds of simple substances on earth. In most cases, the names of simple substances and corresponding chemical elements are the same. Exceptions are oxygen and its allotropic modification ozone, and carbon (diamond, graphite, carbin).
Complex substances or compounds consist of two or more chemical elements that are combined in a specific proportion. Complex substances can be decomposed into simpler ones by chemical reaction.
Each substance has properties inherent only to it, which do not depend on the impact on it of other substances and elements.These are the physical properties of a substance, these include: aggregative state, crystal structure, boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, electrical conductivity, dielectric constant. As well as concentration, absorption, color, inductance, radioactivity, fluidity and emission.
As an example, consider sodium, an alkaline metal of silver-white color, ductile, soft, easily cut with a knife. Sodium has a fairly high values of thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, has a density of 0.96842 g / cm3, melts at a temperature of 97.86 ° C, begins to boil at a temperature of 883.15 ° C. These are the physical properties of sodium.
As a comparison, consider the physical properties of mercury heavy liquid metal of silver-white color. Mercury has a melting point of -39 ° C, boils at a temperature of 356.58 ° C, has a high thermal conductivity. Mercury density at room temperature 13.5457 g / cm3It is the heaviest of all known liquids. Mercury has such physical properties.
As a result, based on the physical properties of simple substances, it is possible to conduct a comparative analysis of various elements.
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