• The laws of dialectics

    Dialectics is reasoning, the art of arguing. This is a philosophical method of argumentation and a way of thinking, which is based on a contradiction. There are 3 laws of dialectics, which are fundamental and which we now consider.

    Law One: Mutual transition of quantitative and qualitative changes

    Dialectics is both a theory and a method. All the laws of dialectics are the comprehension of various facets of our being. This law shows us how development takes place and how communications are made. The content of this law is opened with the help of the categories: “quantity”,

    • "property",
    • "quality",
    • "Leap"
    • "measure".

    For centuries, people have tried to understand the nature of quantitative and qualitative characteristics in the dynamics and structure of being. According to the pupils of the school of Pythagoras, the numbers that express quantitative ratios harbor all the spheres of the solar system and are the most important elements of all things. Heraclitus, Anaximenes and Thales also tried to explain what is the difference between different processes and things.To designate the fundamental properties of nature and knowledge, Aristotle introduced two categories - quantity and quality. He believed that quality has such a context: stable and transient states and properties that are inherent in both things and phenomena in the process of existence; appearance appearance of things. The quantity, according to Aristotle, is “equality” or “inequality”, “magnitude” and “multitude”.

    At the time of the Middle Ages, it was believed that the “hidden” qualities were permanent, eternal forms. These qualities predetermine the properties of objects. The theory of qualities found its continuation in the works of Boyle, Spinoza, Hobbes, Newton and Locke. They divided qualities into:

    1. Objective and subjective.
    2. Primary and secondary.

    In philosophical thought, the concepts of quantity and quality often broke down, but over time, it was asserted that quality and quantity depended on each other. According to Hegel, the inner quality is the certainty of being, and the quantity is the external certainty of the universe.

    The quality is the recognition of an object through all its attributes. What is common in homogeneous processes and objects is quality.It also indicates the differences between these objects and processes.

    Quantity is how fast processes take place, how much things move and change. Quantity can be calculated by a mathematical method. Mendeleev said that where there is a dimension, there is science. In the book Dialectics of Nature, Engels argues that, unlike the exact sciences, in history and biology, no amount can be accurately measured and traced.

    But the leap, according to the laws of dialectics, is when quantitative changes turn into qualitative ones.

    Law Two: Unity and the struggle of opposites

    This law is about the connection of all objects of nature, society and spirituality. Main categories: "contradiction",

    • "The struggle of opposites",
    • "opposite",
    • "unity",
    • "difference",
    • "identity".

    All objects of the universe are complete, but opposite. Everything that exists in this world is the result of a collision of opposites: good and evil, Yin and Yang, beauty and ugliness, the sun and moon, sky and earth, femininity and masculinity, pain and pleasure, etc.

    The original reality divides into itself and its own opposite.The basic laws of the dialectic, and this one in particular, tell us that nature unconsciously itself gave rise to the opposite - society, human consciousness.

    Opposites are often immersed in each other. Personal freedom and the rules of society, collective intelligence and competition, differences in income and social equality - these are vivid examples of this.

    The dialectical contradiction is the relationship between opposites. The original meaning of the contradiction is disagreement in speech, judgments, statements, they all deny each other, hence the vagueness and inconsistency. Contradictions are inherent in each of the forms of existence of the world.

    Contradictions of society are in themselves two characters:

    • Subject-subject (between people and their communities),
    • Subject-object (on such objects as power, property, technology).

    The interaction of opposing sides, their unity is “identity”. If a relative identity arises, then it becomes incompatible, and as a result, the mutual exclusion of opposites appears.

    When one of the sides is in harmony, it allows the other side, and the system to fully open, the reliability of the system as a whole increases. When one side develops at the expense of the other, disharmony begins.

    Law Three: Denial of Negation

    All the laws of dialectics consider different concepts and categories. The main category of the third law is the category of dialectic negation. The law considers the form and direction of development, continuity and continuity, the repetition of some moment from the past.

    Some directions in philosophy believe that denial is a movement backwards, a destruction that occurs in thinking. Most often this occurs in a negative psychological state or in social progress.

    Engels argued that the dialectical philosophy is doomed to arise and collapse each time, because it has nothing sacred and clearly established. But in society, not all denials are dialectical, there are also metaphysical ones. Metaphysical negation exaggerates the moment of destruction (destruction of historical monuments, temples). An example of such a phenomenon is an attempt to create socialism in a state, instead of capitalism and, as a result, the market is completely suppressed, economic collapse and complete stagnation in many spheres of life. Or the desire to create pure capitalism without applying the positive features of socialism.

    Metaphysical negation understands only the negation of the external, the destruction it absolutizes. The ratio of new and old is considered as "either-or."

    Synergetics treats the law of negation of negation as alternation of chaos and order. Order and disorder belong to the same world. They are two sides of the coin. Disorder is a primary condition, something absolutely new arises from it.

    Destruction sets the stage for the arrival of a new phase of a process. Without cumulation, the process would be doomed to return to the starting point. The process is growing and requires design.

    These were the basic laws of dialectics, which each school of philosophy interpreted in its own way.

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