Tourism is one of the most important sources of income for any state, which is why all developed countries in the world try to pay attention to its development. In addition, the degree of development of tourism directly shows the degree of development of the country's economy. And on the cultural and educational aspect of travel, and in general can not speak. In this article we will consider what factors exist in the development of tourism, and the influence of which of them is more pronounced in Russia.
All factors are conventionally divided into two large groups:
- Static, that is, those whose value does not change over time. For example, the climatic and cultural-historical factors that together determine the recreational resource of the country.
- Dynamic, which include factors that tend to be volatile. For example, material, political, financial, economic and socio-demographic factors.
Attractive for tourists, natural and climatic factors are the diversity of landscapes, a large number of bays, coves and sea beaches and a number of other resources.Among the cultural and historical factors of tourists may be interested in monuments of architecture and history, highly developed spiritual and material culture, cultural ties and the diversity of ethnic groups and faiths within the population.
The dynamic factors of tourism are mainly determined by the political situation in the country. Any crises are the consequences of an incorrectly constructed policy in the state. We should also note the policy in the country on the issue of tourism and interregional relations. It can vary greatly from full intervention, when all tourism is in the hands of the state, to small intervention that fully allows private sector competitive activities in the field of tourism.
The financial and economic factors include the economic situation in the state, the standard of living of the population, the prices of consumer goods, the financial security of tourist activities and economic stability in general.
Under the socio-demographic factors understand the age and employment of the population, the level of education and culture, the number of single people and childless couples, the level of urbanization.
Material and technical factors determine the possibility of creating a tourism industry, the availability of places of accommodation, the development of transport, trade and public catering.
The main directions of tourism in Russia
All the above factors affecting tourism, one way or another, played a role in the development of the tourism industry in our country.
The tourism industry has gone through a series of stages of development that led it from the first travels, which were most often accomplished with educational, religious and political goals, to a modern state characterized by a developed network of travel agencies and related businesses that provide convenience and comfort of travel.
Today, certain, most attractive tourist destinations have been formed in our country. These include:
- vacation on the shores of the southern seas (resorts of the Krasnodar Territory)
- cultural and historical tours of the "Golden Ring", consisting of the ancient cities of the European territory of Russia
- sports and ecological tourism (fishing, hunting), common everywhere
- cruises along major rivers (Lena, Volga, Yenisei, Irtysh)
- sea cruises in the Far East
- winter mountain and water tourism (Caucasus, Karelia, Altai, Arkhangelsk region, Kamchatka)
Development of tourism in Russia
The main factors influencing the development of tourism in Russia are the factors of material and technical security. Consider how they manifest themselves in tourism in our country. To do this, we introduce the concept of tourism enterprises.
Tourism enterprises are organizations that provide the opportunity to travel and their comfort. These include:
- travel agencies and tour operators
- railway transport
- excursion companies and guides
And a number of other enterprises.
Tour operators create a product designed for group tourism, in other words, they form a tour program, and travel agents sell ready-made tours to the final consumer, that is, to the tourist.
An integral and important part of each tour is accommodation. For this there are hotels, pensions, motels, rest homes and other enterprises.
Another important component of the tours is food, which is sold through the relevant enterprises: restaurants, cafes, canteens and others.
No trip is complete without transport companies. These are airlines that deliver tourists to a place of rest, and ground transportation, which allows to organize excursions, as well as water transport, which provides walks and cruises.
Tours rarely do without a cultural program that includes excursions that organizations or private guides carry out.
Any tourist, one way or another, would like to have fun, because tourism enterprises also include cinemas, clubs, gambling halls, water parks and other entertainment enterprises.
This list is not complete, but gives an idea of what is related to tourism enterprises.
All resorts in Russia somehow develop tourism enterprises. But problems still remain, for example, the problem of transport accessibility of many recreational resources. It affects not only domestic but also international tourism.
Factors of development of international tourism in Russia today are mainly reduced to political and economic, since the country is just emerging from the crisis, international tourism is going through difficult times.However, the government is actively developing the material and technical base in order to level the influence of negative factors and attract both foreign tourists and investors to the tourism industry in Russia.
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