Vitamins for athletes
There are several different types of carbohydrates:
Simple sugars, soluble in water:
glucose circulates in the circulatory system and, when oxidized, gives energy;
fructose (from honey and fruit) and galactose (sugar from milk), before being used by the body, are converted into glucose.
More complex sugars, including sucrose (cane sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose (sugar produced during digestion from animal and vegetable starch). In the process of digestion, they decompose into two monosaccharides.
Complex sugar, insoluble in water. These include:
vegetable starches and cellulose are the form in which plants store energy derived from sunlight. Starch is found in the seeds of many plants, especially in leguminous crops and potatoes. Their main role is to maintain the growth of the plant until it can support itself with photosynthesis. Unripe fruits also contain starch, which turns into sugar as it ripens.Starch consists of complex chains - interconnected units of glucose. It is digested only after processing, when its granules swell and burst. Cellulose is fibrous and is not digested, but as a fiber, it is an important component of food.
Glycogen (animal starch) is the form in which glucose is stored in the liver and muscles. When the body needs energy, it splits into glucose molecules.
Sugars present in legumes (peas and beans). They are broken down in the digestive system, not by enzymes, but by fermentation in the colon.
Starch is the main part of carbohydrates in our body.
Lipids, or fats, are organic compounds that, like carbohydrates, consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but contain more hydrogen than carbohydrates. The body absorbs the main components of fats: fatty acids - the main fuel of the body - and glycerin. Lipids differ in the content of different fatty acids.
The body stores fat in fat cells, which form a thick subcutaneous layer. The fat layer provides heat insulation and serves as a soft gasket, giving the body shape and protecting it from damage. It is also the most concentrated source of energy for the human body.
Fats are divided into two main types.
Saturated fats are of animal origin and high in hydrogen. They are contained in butter, milk and other dairy products. At a sufficiently high temperature, they harden. It is believed that saturated fats are harmful to health, especially those that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
Unsaturated fats are found in vegetable oils and fish oils and contain less hydrogen. It is believed that they hinder the development of atherosclerosis and are more favorable to human health than saturated fats. Fats do not dissolve in water, although they dissolve in alcohol, ether and chloroform. But during chemical treatment with alkalis, fats are split into individual units and can be mixed with water. This is how the soap production process takes place, and it also happens when the body digests fats.
Mineral oils like paraffin and petroleum jelly cannot be turned into soap and do not represent nutritional value.
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