What is coffee?
Coffee - one of the favorite drink in the world, and is grown on different continents of the globe. Coffee is loved by many, but does everyone know what coffee is? The word coffee comes from the Arabic "gahwa" - "exciting drink", and from the region of Ethiopia - Kafa, where they first felt the tonic properties of the coffee tree. Evergreen tropical coffee tree grows in regions with hot tropical climates.
The fruit of the coffee tree is an oblong-shaped berry, 1-2 cm in size. When ripe, the color of the fruit is red or violet-blue. Under the thin skin of the fruit is silvery pulp with 2 beans, which in Russia are called coffee beans. More than 55 types of coffee tree are known, but two types are most known:
- Arabian coffee (Arabica),
- Congolese coffee (robusta).
More than 30 countries in Central and South America, Africa and Asia grow coffee trees, the fruits of which are processed and then exported.
Stages of coffee production
The quality of coffee is affected by each stage of growing, harvesting, cleaning and drying, as well as production: roasting, grinding and storage. After ripening, the fruits that fall themselves will subsequently be processed into expensive coffees.For the processing of cheap varieties of coffee rip ripe and unripe fruits. Then the fruits are dried for three weeks, cleaned with special peeling machines, in some African countries the peeling of the fruits is done manually. Purification of coffee fruits can also be done wet. Dried coffee fruits are then packaged in jute bags that can be aged for a year, some varieties up to 8-10 years. Roasting is carried out in several degrees:
- light Scandinavian roasting - light brown color, with a delicate taste and aroma, usually drunk in the morning, preferably with milk,
- the middle “Viennese” roast is a chocolate-brown color with a luxurious, slightly sweet flavor; popular with the Austrians, the Dutch, the Germans, the Ukrainians, the Russians,
- strong “French” roast - dark brown in color, with a pronounced bitterness
- “Italian” roasting - from dark brown to black-brown, with a bitter, expressive taste,
- special espresso roast - with black grains
By the way, roasting coffee beans can be done at home. Coffee grinding can be: coarse, medium, thin, thin espresso, powdered.
Types of coffee
Next, the most common types of coffee and how they are prepared:
- Instant coffee. What is it and how is it different from the rest? This coffee is made in the form of pyramids of light brown color, almost instantly dissolves in hot water, forming a foam on the surface. Freeze-dried coffee is produced by the "dry freezing" technology.
- Espresso coffee. What it is? Espresso is a special type of coffee, prepared in a coffee machine, with a stream of hot water that passes through ground coffee.
- Latte. What it is? Italian "latte" is milk. For its preparation requires a coffee maker with a device for foaming the foam. In a transparent glass, whipped milk is poured at the bottom, then a thin stream of espresso coffee, and then milk froth on top. Milk can be whipped in a thermos, shaking quickly for 10-15 seconds. You can add syrups, cinnamon, ice cream, chocolate to lattes.
- Cappuccino coffee. What is it that is required for its preparation? Cappuccino requires an equal amount of espresso and whipped milk with a fat content of at least 3.5%. Cappuccino is served in thick, opaque cups with thick walls.
- Coffee Glace. It requires coffee and ice cream.Coffee is brought to a boil, but not boiled, then cooled and filtered. Then pour half a cup of coffee and ice cream on top. Glasse served with a straw.
- Coffee Lungo. What is a lungo coffee? Lungo is prepared in a coffee grinder, but it is weaker than an espresso.
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