What is transcription?
Transcription is a concept used in several disciplines at once. In phonetics, transcription is used to record the sounding speech with signs. It is based on a one-to-one correspondence between the graphic symbol and sound. To understand what phonetic transcription is very simple. It is enough just to compare the sound of the word with its graphic symbol. Writing the transcription of a word sometimes causes difficulties, because in Russian the sound is completely different from the spelling of the word. You can not say about a language like German. In it, the letters fixed on paper repeat the sounds exactly, so it is very easy to learn this language. Consider the word transcription.
Transcription in phonetics
To record a word with sounds, usually transcribed sounds are enclosed in brackets (square). Pauses in transcribed speech are recorded as #, but they are very often completely ignored in the letter.
Words that consist of several syllables should have accents in their transcriptions. In the case when two words (most often, this word and preposition) are pronounced together, when recording transcriptions, the league _ is put between these words.
As for Russian phonetics, only Cyrillic is used here for recording sounds. Consonants are written in the equivalent letters of the Russian alphabet, icons are placed next to or above them, which indicate softness, longitude of sound and other features of the sound.
Some sounds are similar to each other, so you can confuse them when recording, which is the most common error in transcribing. Translation is the reading of a word by the specified transcription. Thus, one can easily understand what transcription and translation are in Russian and how to correctly record it.
Transcription in music
Since transcription is a concept inherent in various sciences, for comparison it is necessary to consider what is transcription in music. Very often, musicians independently transfer a piece of music intended for another instrument to their own, and perform it in their own processing. This process is called transcription. Thus, the reading of the musical notation here is compared with the recording of words, and the reproduction of music by the instrument is analogous to the reproduction of sounds by organs of speech.
Transcription in biology
In biology, transcription is a more complex concept that means synthesis of RNA using DNA, which is used as a template. This process occurs with a certain frequency in all living organisms. Simply put, this is the process of transferring information about a gene from DNA to RNA. Let us consider in more detail what transcription is in biology.
In biology, in contrast to music and the Russian language, translation is precisely the process of catalyzing enzymes. Transcription consists of several stages: initiation, elongation and termination. The initial stage of the process depends on the sequence of DNA elements next to the transcribed sequence, as well as on the absence and presence of proteins.
The second stage is not exactly fixed in the conditional framework. However, it characterizes three main events, namely: separation of the sigma factor, preliminary translocation of the enzyme in the direction of the matrix, as well as stabilization of the transcriptional complex, which also includes the growing RNA strand. The elongation phase ends very often after the transcript is released and the enzyme is dissociated.Elongation unwinds DNA to 18 base pairs as RNA polymerase moves inward.
The third stage is least studied in humans and other higher organisms, but in plants it passes most easily and quickly. Connections between mRNA and DNA are created, resulting in the release of one of the RNA molecules.
Definitely, in order to learn what transcription is in medicine, one must have deep knowledge in this science. Transcription is very often used in the study of genetic and other diseases.
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